Poland: Heavy German attacks on lower Ravka on Russian Christmas Day repulsed.
Armenia: Battle of Kara Urgan (until January 15) between Turkish XI Corps and Yudenich, who outflank it from north between January 10-15.
India – Northwest Frontier: Captain Jothan of North Waziristan Militia ambushed by 1,500 Khostwals warriors, wins posthumous Victoria Cross.
Italy: Corpo Aeronautico Militare (Military Air Service) established with a few Bleriot and Nieuport planes.
France: Absinthe sale prohibited or new liquor stores.
Russia: Bolshevik Petrograd ‘Military Group’ issues leaflet to soldiers, workers and peasants urging non-payment of rents by end of month.