Diary for Wednesday, April 19, 1916:
East Africa: 3 Belgian battalions (Olsen’s Southern Brigade) invade near Shangugu, Belgian Northern Brigade (Molitor) invades Ruanda on April 25. Belgians have 10,000 troops, 12 guns and 60 MGs.
British general Smuts has 30,000 porters.
Flanders: German advances at St Eloi and on Ypres-Langemarck road but British recapture ground (April 21).
Verdun: Three German attacks at Les Eparges (Woevre) but repulsed (April 20). Petain promoted to command of Centre Army Group (Langle retires, aged almost 67 years); Second Army and Army of Verdun under Nivelle. GQG orders Ft Douaumont‘s recapture on April 28.
Mesopotamia: Field Marshal Goltz (aged 73) died from typhus, spotted fever or cholera, rumour that Turks poisoned him; buried in Constantinople. Enver’s nephew Brigade-General Khalil Pasha (aged 34) succeeds.
Lawrence arrives at Tigris Corps headquarter, catches fever.
Britain: Nearly 200,000 women in weapon and chemical industries.
Turkey: Provincial Governors to seize transport and fix food prices.