War Diary World War One for Friday, December 18, 1914:
First German trench mortar unit formed (6 light mortars per pioneer company from January 1915).
Flanders: British 7th and 8th divisions attack around Neuve Chapelle, Indian Corps at Givenchy (until December 23). Indian Cavalry Corps formed (existing until March 12, 1916).
Poland: Battle of Rawka-Bzura begins.
Carpathians: Austrians recover Lupka Pass.
Egypt: British Protectorate established. Hussein Kamal Pasha I, uncle of deposed Khedive Abbas Hilmi, proclaimed Sultan next day.
South West Africa and Angola: After 500-mile march 640 Germans defeat Portuguese (182 casualties including 37 PoWs) at Naulila. They hang 6 PoWs on return.
North Sea: U-boat U5 mined and lost close to Flanders coast. U11 mined and lost in Dover Straits.
Sweden: Scandinavian kings meet at Malmö.
Austria: Masaryk leaves Prague for exile at Rome.
Britain: Kitchener’s resignation threat wins Prime Ministers veto on Churchill’s visits to Field Marshal French, latter sees Prime Minister and Kitchener.