Diary for Friday, April 23, 1915:
Ypres – Second German gas attack: they take Langemarck, Steenstraate bridge and positions south of Lizerne as Allied counterattack collapses.
First Canadian VC of the war: L/Cp F Fisher (13th Bn).
Italian Advanced Occupation region raised to 8 corps, a Bersaglieri division and 2 Alpini groups.
Dardanelles: Sub-Lt Rupert Brooke, war poet, died of blood-poisoning aboard hospital ship at Skyros, aged 27.
East Atlantic: British blockade of the Cameroons formally begins (raised February 29, 1916).
Home Waters: Fisher tells Churchill U-boats able to radio 300 nm day or night.
Aegean: Allied Gallipoli landing force (200 ships) belatedly arrives off beachhead. After the naval failure the transports (not loaded to permit rapid disembarkation under fire) have had to be withdrawn to Egypt for reloading.
Baltic: U26 (Berckheim) stops and sinks Russian SS Frack. Royal Navy submarine E1 towed to sea by icebreaker.
Turkey: Constantinople police arrest 235 leading Armenians for internal exile.
Britain: Pensions for dependants of civilians killed on War Depts’ work.
Austria – Vienna: bread of poor quality, hardly flour available.