Diary for Thursday, January 13, 1916:
Mesopotamia – Battle of Wadi (until January 14): Aylmer (1,613 casulaties) takes Turk position but fails to cut Turk retreat (2,000 casualties) on Um-el-Hanna. Heavy rains and wind (January 14-18) break British Tigris bridge.
Persia: Baratov defeats German Count Kaunitz and Turk battalion at Kangavar, concentrates 8000-10,000 men and 22 guns at Hamadan.
Russian artillery strength 4,894 guns (including Armenian Front and only 210 x 6-in howitzers) with 4,915,000 shells.
Western Russia: Russian Fifth Army (Gourko) success at Garbonovka near Dvinsk, more fighting following day.
King Nicholas of Montenegro cables Vienna for peace, but terms uncompromising yet refuses to order army to follow Serbs.
Germany: Naval Staff declare their support for unrestricted submarine warfare, can force England to make peace in 6 months.
Germany: Chancellor promises Prussian Diet postwar electoral reform.
Britain: Commons votes Royal Navy 50,000 more men (total 350,000).