Britain: 3,000 British merchant ships have guns; 2,180 guns mounted in 1917 only 190 under 12-pounder (3-inch) calibre. ASW depth charge issue doubled to 4,6 by August. 100-300 used per month during 1917 (production 1,678 per month) against U-boats. Bomb or howitzer thrower (most common 7.5in howitzer) begins to equip 542 warships and 735 merchantmen, able to fire 111-113-lb bombs 650-2600 yards astern or broadside on.
Atlantic: First regular eastbound transatlantic convoy sails from Hampton Roads (Virginia), codelettered HH1. Other regular convoys from Canadian Sydney (Cape Breton), Gibraltar and New York. U-boat attack on US troop convoy defeated. Average of U-boats at sea falls to 41 per day.
Galicia: KERENSKY OR SECOND BRUSILOV (SUMMER) OFFENSIVE (until July 18) on 50-mile front astride Brzezany with 31 infantry divisions and 1,328 guns with objective Lemberg. Seventh Army gains little ground and loses it all to Germans by July 6, but Eleventh Army drives 3-mile wedge between opposing armies at Koniuchy. Russians take 10,429 PoWs and 5 guns for 17,339 casualties.
Switzerland: During July Sir Basil Zahroff meets Enver Pasha and Abdal Karim (Colonel Frobenius) in Switzerland and offers $1.5m for Turkey to sign separate peace, but refused.
Occupied Belgium: During July Captain Landau (MI1c) takes over 129-strong La Dame Blanche train watching network and crucially expands it by end-September.
Germany: Austrian Emperor Charles state visit to Bavaria and Wurttemberg.