Diary for Monday, July 31, 1916:
5 German divisions sent from Western Front to Eastern Front during July. Joffre summons Foch to get him to persuade (vainly) Haig to launch broad-front attacks.
Battle of the Somme: German casualties since July 1; 160,000 including in at least 67 counter-attacks; BEF 196,081 (158,786 on Somme) worst month of war; French casualties 49,859.
Verdun: French casualties 31,000; German 25,969 casualties during July.
Britain: 8 airships are dispersed by unpredicted winds, 103 bombs scattered over 6 counties (no casualties), Kent-Notts (night July 31 – August 1).
Western Front: 11 Anglo-German air combats.
East Africa: South African troops take Saranda and Kilmatinde on Central Railway. By July sick ratio to battle casualties 31.4:1; Smuts 200 doctors short.