War Diary of World War One for Monday, August 31, 1914
France: French stand on line from river Aisne-Reims-Verdun. Kluck, under orders to protect German right flank and Bülow’s exposed flank on his left, begins to move southeast across Paris front to aid Bülow against d’Esperey. Germans discount the BEF crossing Aisne as a ‘spent force’ despite 2 cavalry actions. Austrian Skoda howitzers bombard Givet, which Germans take.
Belgium: German Naval Corps (Admiral Schröder) formed to garrison Liege and later the Flanders coast.
Lorraine: Battle of the Grande Couronne of Nancy until September 11.
East Prussia: Germans retake Neidenburg. Russian 1 st Cavalry Division just disengages from raid on Allenstein.
Poland: Russian Fifth Army evades trap but loses 40% of its men and 156 guns. Austrian have 40,000 casualties including 8 generals.
Galicia: Austrian line broken near Halicz. Austrian August deaths are 15% of the total losses in 1914. Grand Duke Nicholas orders Ivanov to destroy Austrians armies.
Atlantic: German cruiser Karlsruhe sinks British SS Strathroy 100 miles (ca. 161 km) off Brazil.
3 AMCs (armed merchantman) commissioned to reinforce Northern Patrol.
Far East: Rear-Adm Jerram (China Squadron) arrives at Singapore, sends his 3 cruisers to search Dutch East Indies for 22 German merchant ships until September 13. Red Sea: 2 Royal Navy cruisers capture 2 German merchantmen in August.
Southeast Cameroons: 375 French soldiers in 3 steamers from Bonga occupy Wesso on border, others hold line on river Lobaye.
South Africa: 2,500 South African under Lukin land at Port Nolloth to cover Cape Province northern border against German Southwest Africa.
Italy: Garibaldi’s son and grandson, between them veterans of the Franco-Prussian War, 2 Greco-Turk wars and Boer War, raised 14,000-strong Italian Legion to fight for France.
Greece: The government formally declares its neutrality.
Egypt: Egyptian Camel Corps ordered to Suez Canal.
Britain: Churchill and Kitchener agree on joint planning against Turkey. Next day British Admiralty and War Office discuss Gallipoli landing and sinking of Turkish ships which leave the Dardanelles.
Germany: Unemployment 22.4%. In Nuremberg 40% because of collapse of pencil export industry.
Britain: All-Party Recruiting Committee formed on day record 30,000 volunteers enlist.
France: Record unemployment 43%. Less than 50% of the industry is still working, Renault works has to be closed.